It is the total dislocation of the joint between the humeral head and the glenoid cavity of the scapula. When the patient undergoes a forced rotational movement of the arm together with muscle strain or compression, the resilience capacity of the joints which stabilize the articulation is exceeded and the shoulder gets dislocated.
The dislocation is typically anterior, that is, the humeral head moves forward and is typical of falling on the hand. It is more common in men than in women and affects mostly young people. When the dislocation is posterior humeral head moves back and is typical of the patient suffering seizures: epilepsy, electrocution, etc.
There are two options for surgical repair: open and arthroscopic. The open method is the traditional one and involves surgery with a large scar and very often some limitation of the outward rotation movement of the arm. The minimally invasive arthroscopic method has advantages such as being aesthetically better because only small incisions are required; there is less postoperative pain, shorter surgery time, decreased blood loss, better preservation of outward arm rotation.