higado_y_vias-biliaresThe liver is the recipient of food absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract (especially the small intestine) and acts as customs duties, playing a role in defense, potentially toxic substance detoxification, and storage of energy products.

The biliary system consists of the gallbladder and associated structures involved in the production and transport of bile that helps break down fats. The main functions of the biliary system include draining waste products from the liver and aiding digestion by releasing bile (made up of waste products, cholesterol and bile salts) in a controlled manner. The two main functions of bile are hauling waste and breaking down fats during digestion.



1.Gallbladder stones or cholelithiasis:

calculos_vesicula_biliarIs one of the most common digestive disorders. It is characterized by the presence of stones of different sizes in the gallbladder. Most stones are formed by cholesterol crystals.



The causes of cholelithiasis are: female gender, obesity, pregnancy, multiple births (several children), people over 40 years of age, weight loss in a short period of time, immediate relative history, among others.

The symptoms appear after consuming fatty foods, with moderate to strong abdominal pain. It is accompanied by nausea, vomiting, fever, yellowing of the skin, very dark white stools and urine. Complications may include biliary colic, gallstones that block the ducts that carry bile from the liver to the intestine, the presence of pus in the ducts that carry bile from the liver to the intestine, pancreatitis, (intestinal obstruction) and gallbladder carcinoma.

The accepted treatment is total laparoscopic resection of the gallbladder, in which, a camera is introduced through small incisions in the skin and the use of special forceps, in order to remove the vesicle that contains the gallstones. Recovery is quick and the postoperative diet consists of the progressive incorporation of fat into the diet. General anesthesia may be used depending on the case, and the patient will be discharged the same day or one day after.