The esophagus is a muscular tube for food and liquid, which runs from the back of the mouth (the throat) to the upper stomach. It is divided into three sections: cervical in the upper part, thoracic in the central part, and abdominal in the lower part. Here, the sphincter opens to allow food to enter the stomach and closes to prevent gastric fluids and bile acids from entering the esophagus. Unfortunately, this is one of the weak points of the digestive system. Old age, overeating, obesity and a number of conditions can cause gastroesophageal junction malfunctions, allowing stomach fluids to pass into the esophagus. When this happens we call it heartburn, burning sensation or acid reflux. When this happens constantly it becomes a gastroesophageal reflux disease.
Gastric esophageal reflux is the passage of partially digested food and gastric juices from the stomach into the esophagus, causing the patient to feel acidity or heartburn, acid regurgitation, chest pain, pain on swallowing, coughing, hoarseness, pharyngitis or laryngitis.
There are two types recommended treatments for reflux: the natural treatment with a change in lifestyle mainly in the diet with a healthy diet without irritants and drugs that decrease the amount of acid, dramatically improving the reflux condition. And the surgical treatment or fundoplication indicated for patients who have: Barrett’s esophagus, paraesophageal hiatal hernia, or Heller myotomy for achalasia. This treatment is most suitable to treat gastroesophageal reflux and is performed by laparoscopy, in which part of the stomach is bypassed to get to the distal esophagus. It is the most suitable and with the least postoperative difficulty to eat, and higher patient satisfaction.